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Kamis, 09 Mei 2013

tugas ku makalah tentang memory


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Memory is something that is fundamental to human life. A very close relationship with the mindset of making it one of the most frequent and the most interesting to be discussed. Based repository span, memory stored in the human brain is divided into two, namely long-term memory and short term memory. Short-term memory is stored in the memory span of 30 seconds if no repetition, and memory are responding to stimuli from the environment. While the long-term memory is memory that is permanently stored in the brain.
We all know that our brain can record our deeds. He worked as a memory. Every activity we do, then our brains will record it. Deeds that we do it will give the impression through the five senses, and then transmitted to the brain, and then stored as a memory. For example, we did hurt someone. Of course, the person will react. The reaction is what we perceive through our five senses. Either through hearing, through visions, or through other senses. That reaction we will catch the waves vibrate the sensor in our senses, then forwarded as electrical impulses to the brain through neural networks. In the brain, the reaction will be saved as a certain voltage, called memory. The brain is very complex, where people do not fully understand. However, in general, we know that in fact the mechanism is in the form of electrical impulses. We remembered the mechanism of action of a computer. However, the sophistication of our brain a million times higher than computer skills, advanced once.  So, every time we do, we actually tantamount to enter the data into the memory of our brain. Only, recordings made by the brain's memory is secondary data.


CHAPTER II
THE BODY OF THE CHAPTER
A.    Definition of Memory
Memory is a function of the brain that involve cognition in information retrieval. The memory will be studied more in depth in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. In general, the experts looked at the memory as the relationship between the experience of the past. What has to remember is that once experienced, ever imagined , and it ever entered into his soul and then stored at one time incident brought back into consciousness. Memory is the ability to accept and enter the (learning), save (retention) and reawaken what ever experienced (remembering). In the process of remembering information there are 3 stages which include information (encoding), storage (storage), and remembering (retrieval stage).
Memory is the ability of the brain to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. Although traditional studies of memory began in the realms of philosophy, the late nineteenth and early twentieth century put memory within the paradigms of cognitive psychology. In the recent decades, it has become one of the principal pillars of a new branch of science that represents a marriage between cognitive psychology and neuroscience, called cognitive neuroscience.
In psychology, memory is the processes by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage we must change the information so that we may put the memory into the encoding process. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that we maintain information over periods of time. Finally the third process is the retrieval of information that we have stored. We must locate it and return it to our consciousness. Some retrieval attempts may be effortless due to the type of information.

B.     Types of Memory
Based repository span, memory stored in the human brain is divided into two, namely long-term memory and short-term memory.
1.      Long Term Memory
Long term memory is part of the memory system to store information for long periods of time. Long-term memory has a very large capacity to store memory with a very long-term. Many experts believe that the information contained in long-term memory is never forgotten, probably just lose the ability to recover information stored in our memory. (in Nur et al, 1998:13) states that the long-term memory experts divide into three parts: episodic memory, semantic memory and procedural memory. Episodic memory is the memory of a personal experience, a mental picture of something seen or heard. Semantic memory is long-term memory that contains the facts and generalized information that is known as the concepts, principles or rules and how to use them and problem solving skills and learning strategies. Procedural memory refers to the "know how" ("knowing how") as opposed to "know what" ("knowing that") (Syswester, 1985 in Nur et al, 1998:13).
Episodic memory, semantic and procedural differ in terms of how it works in store and organize information. The information in episodic memory is stored in the form of images (shadows) that are organized based on when and where these events occurred. The information in semantic memory is organized in a network of relationships of ideas. While the information in procedural memory is stored as pairs of complex stimulus-response (Oakley, 1981 in Nur et al, 1998:14).
To call and add information in long-term memory, we assisted with the elaboration, organization and use of context. Elaboration is giving new meaning to informated by connecting with existing knowledge. In other words, we apply the existing scheme and describe the prior knowledge to form a new understanding when we refine existing knowledge. Sometimes elaboration happens automatically, for example when teachers received new info about the experience already understood, then he will immediately activate the existing knowledge and provide a better understanding and complete. The information elaborated when first studied easily because elaboration is called working memory activation form that makes the information continues to be stored in the active long-term memory. Elaboration also building additional relationships in the knowledge they already possess. The more information connecting it with other, more available road map to follow in finding the original source of knowledge. The more often an individual to elaborate new ideas, then he will make it with his own language that he caused the better understanding of knowledge. We assist students in the elaboration by asking them to write down the information according to the words which they set themselves or by making a relevant example. The opposite can happen, when students perform elaborate new information by connecting it to things that are not right and develop explanations of ambiguous, then this misconception will be stored and kept in mind by the student.

Organizational knowledge also increases learning. Teaching materials are well organized will certainly be easier to learn than a disorganized, especially when the information in it is also complex. Putting the concept of a structure to help you learn and remember both for common definitions and specific examples.
Context is another element of the process that affect learning. Physical and emotional aspects of the context of other information with studied simultaneously. When you try to remember the information, it would help if there was a context similar to the conditions we get the information. So conditioned atmosphere test before the real test will affect improve performance. Of course we can not always go to the same place when you begin to understand a thing, but if you can describe it mentally that you can improve your memory.

2.      Short Term Memory
Short-term memory, also known as active memory, is the information we are currently aware of or thinking about. In Freudian psychology, this memory would be referred to as the conscious mind. Paying attention to sensory memories generates the information in short-term memory. Most of the information stored in active memory will be kept for approximately 20 to 30 seconds. While many of our short-term memories are quickly forgotten, attending to this information allows it to continue on the next stage - long-term memory.
Short-term memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute without rehearsal. Its capacity is also very limited: George A. Miller (1956), when working at Bell Laboratories, conducted experiments showing that the store of short-term memory was 7±2 items (the title of his famous paper, "The magical number 7±2"). Modern estimates of the capacity of short-term memory are lower, typically of the order of 4–5 items, however, memory capacity can be increased through a process called chunking. For example, in recalling a ten-digit telephone number, a person could chunk the digits into three groups: first, the area code (such as 123), then a three-digit chunk (456) and lastly a four-digit chunk (7890). This method of remembering telephone numbers is far more effective than attempting to remember a string of 10 digits; this is because we are able to chunk the information into meaningful groups of numbers. This may be reflected in some countries in the tendency to display telephone numbers as several chunks of three numbers, with the final four-number group generally broken down into two groups of two.
Short-term memory is believed to rely mostly on an acoustic code for storing information, and to a lesser extent a visual code. Conrad (1964)[5] found that test subjects had more difficulty recalling collections of letters that were acoustically similar (e.g. E, P, D). Confusion with recalling acoustically similar letters rather than visually similar letters implies that the letters were encoded acoustically. Conrad's (1964) study however, deals with the encoding of written text, thus while memory of written language may rely on acoustic components, generalization to all forms of memory cannot be made.







C.    Play a Role in Remembering
In role play to remembering, short and long term memory has differences in powering and capacity. But, each memory have an important roles. It’s simply explanation.
a.       Short-term memory / working memory acts as a place to store data, used to store information that it only takes a moment.  For example: when someone counts 35 x 6, maybe people will multiply 5 by 6 first used and then 30 x 6. To establish the above calculations as required temporary storage for reuse later.  Memory can be accessed by dialing ± 70 ms, 200 ms ± fast removal.  Memory capacity is small / limited.
b.      Long –term memory. This memory is required to store information in long time. It is a place to keep all the knowledge, facts, information, experiences, behavioral sequences, and everything is known. It has big capacity / not limited, slower access speeds ± 1/10 second, and this memory is slow removal.

D.    Factors That Affect Memory
The process of memory recall or influenced by couple of factors, namely:
1)      Individual Factors
The process will be more effective when given individual has a substantial interest, strong motivation, have a particular method of observation and learning has a physical condition and good health.
2)      Factors Something must be in Remember is something that has a clear organization and structure, has meant, is linked to an individual, have a strong enough stimulus intensity.
3)      Environmental Factors recall process will be more effective if there is a supportive environment and avoid any disturbances.




CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION and SUGGESTION
A.    CONCLUSION
Based on the discussion above,  we can make a conclude the following:
Memory or recall is the process of receiving, storing and issuing back information that has been received through observation, then stored in a central consciousness (the brain) after being given an interpretation. In the brain, there are two kinds of containers of information or feedback namely:
a.       Short-Term Memory (STM)
b.      Long-term memory   (LTM)
Memory or recall process occurs in three stages:
a.      Stages of acquisition of information
b.      Stage Storage Short Term or long-term memory
c.       Stages issued some time back when needed
Play a role in remembering
a.       Short-term memory / working memory acts as a place to store data, used to store information that it only takes a moment.  For example: when someone counts 35 x 6, maybe people will multiply 5 by 6 first used and then 30 x 6. To establish the above calculations as required temporary storage for reuse later.  Memory can be accessed by dialing ± 70 ms, 200 ms ± fast removal.  Memory capacity is small / limited.
b.      Long –term memory. This memory is required to store information in long time. It is a place to keep all the knowledge, facts, information, experiences, behavioral sequences, and everything is known. It has big capacity / not limited, slower access speeds ± 1/10 second, and this memory is slow removal.


B.     SUGGESTION
It does not mean that all who have experienced it will remain entirely in memory and can be fully brought back or in other words there are forgotten. Events this forgetfulness can occur because of limited memory capacity, faster than those in the insert (disperse) what he learned, or because of psychological problems in him. So that the necessary specific techniques to overcome forgetfulness happens to us.










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