Kamis, 09 Mei 2013

lesson plan, tugas tefl

A.    What Do I Mean By Planning?
Learning plan is an important step that must be teachers before they carry out teaching and learning activities and to achieve the ultimate goal of learning. Learning is not just a routine activity but education is full of educational communication messages, systemic, procedural, and full of purpose. Therefore, he must be prepared carefully. Planning learning is a process of making plans, models, patterns, shapes, construction of which involves, teachers, learners, and other necessary facilities are arranged systematically for effective learning process occurs and efficiently to achieve the learning objectives have been defined.
Planning is a process of learning to understand the variety of normative documents (Candy 22, 23, 24, etc.) and alternative (text books or other sources) and the contextual realities (students and their needs), and further realize the results of this understanding becomes applicable documents (syllabus and lesson plans ) which is implemented in learning in school.  Planning the learning process includes the syllabus and learning implementation plan that includes at least the purpose of learning, teaching materials, teaching methods, learning resources, and assessment of learning outcomes (Article 20 Regulation 19/2005). Learning activities should be planned with the teacher learners. The following description framework in planning the curriculum of learning by using the triangle.
                                  a.         Content means any topic contained in the curriculum that need to be tailored to the needs of the class based on the background, ability, and diversity of learners.
                                 b.         Process is how the curriculum content is taught, using various methods and learning resources based on how learners' learning for learning needs can be met.
                                  c.         Environment, namely the use of learning resources in the learning process that can be used to develop psycho-social learners. Learners can learn well if they are creative, active, and activities based on the experience of learners. Teachers who know and understand this situation can easily put it into the learning plan.

Planning Lessons I’d like to define right away what I mean by it. By ‘planning’, I mean what most working teachers do when they say they’re planning their lessons. Thus I take planning to include the following: considering the students, thinking of the content, materials and activities that could go into a course or lesson, jotting these down, having a quiet ponder, cutting things out of magazines and anything else that you feel will help you to teach well and the students to learn a lot, i.e. to ensure our lessons and courses are good. I do not mean the writing of pages of notes with headings such as ‘Aims’ and ‘Anticipated problems’ to be given in to an observer before they watch you teach. I also take it as given that plans are just plans. They’re not legally binding. We don’t have to stick to them come hell or high water. They are to help us shape the space, time and learning we share with students. We can depart from them or stick to them as we, the students and the circumstances seem to need.
Lesson planning is a special skill that is learned in much the same way as other skills. It is one thing to surf the Net to retrieve lesson plans from other sites and adapt them to your needs. It is quite another thing to have the skill to develop your own lesson plans. When you are able to create your own lesson plans, it means you have taken a giant step toward "owning" the content you teach and the methods you use, and that is a good thing. Acquiring this skill is far more valuable than being able to use lesson plans developed by others. It takes thinking and practice to hone this skill, and it won't happen overnight, but it is a skill that will help to define you as a teacher. Knowing "how to" is far more important than knowing "about" when it comes to lesson plans, and is one of the important markers along the way to becoming a professional teacher. It is also in keeping with a central theme of this site that you should learn to plan lessons in more than one way. The corollary is, of course, that there is no one "best way" to plan lessons. Regardless of the form or template, there are fundamental components of all lesson plans that you should learn to write, revise, and improve. The old adage, "Practice doesn't make perfect; perfect practice makes perfect" is at the core of learning this skill. Trust me on this.

Lesson plans also help new or inexperienced teachers organize content, materials, and methods. When you are learning the craft of teaching, organizing your subject-matter content via lesson plans is fundamental. Like most skills, you'll get better at it the more you do it and think of ways of improving your planning and teaching based on feedback from your students, their parents, and other teachers. Developing your own lesson plans also helps you "own" the subject matter content you are teaching, and that is central to everything good teachers do.
B.     Why Plan At All
Some teachers with experience seem to have an ability to think on their feet, which allows them to believe that they do not need to plan their lessons. However, most teachers go on preparing lessons throughout their careers, even if the plans are very informal. For students evidence of a plan shows them that the teacher has devoted time to thinking about the class. It strongly suggest a level of professionalism and a commitment to the kind of preparation they might reasonably expect. Lack of a plan may suggest the opposite of these teacher attributes.
For the teacher, a plan-however informal-gives the lesson a framework an overall shape. It is true that he or she may end up departing from it at stages of the lesson, but at the very least it will be something to fall back on. Of course, good teachers are flexible and respond creatively to what happens in the classroom, but they also need to have thought ahead, have a destination they want their students to reach, and know how they are going to get there.
Planning helps, then, because it allows teachers to think about where they are going and gives them time to have ideas for tomorrow’s and next week’s lessons. In the classroom, a plan helps to remind teachers what they intended to do, especially if they get distracted or momentarily forget what they had intended. Finally planning helps because it gives students confidence: they know immediately whether a teacher has thought about the lesson, and they respond positively to those they have.
No plan is written on tablets of stone, however. On the contrary, the plan is just that-a plan, possibilities for the lesson which may or may not come about, in other words. Of course, we will be happy if thing’s go “according to plan”, but the often don’t. As we said at the very beginning of this report that all sorts of things can go wrong: equipment not working, bored students, students who’ve done it before, students who need to ask unexpected question or who want or need to pursue unexpected pathways, etc. that’s when the teacher has to be flexible, has to be able to leave the plan however long it to satisfy the student’s needs at that point in the lesson. Sometimes the plan has to be abandoned completely and it is only after the lesson that the teacher can look at again and see if some parts of it are recoverable for future lessons.

A.    The pre-plan
We will teach the four skills, making our decisions about how much weight to give each skill (and the language to be used) as best we can. A detailed knowledge of the students, then, is essential when planning what activities to use and what subject matter to teach. It is important for the students to be interested in the subject, but it is also important that they should be able to cope with its level of difficulty (not just of the language, but also the content): where there are clearly definable student needs it is important for the students to see that the teacher has taken account of these needs and is organising classes accordingly - although we should bear in mind our comments about needs and wants and the importance of general planning principles.
Knowing the students (who they are, what they bring to class and what their needs are) will give the teacher a good idea of how to provide a program of balanced activities that will be most motivating and most beneficial to the students.
Teachers who are knowledgeable about the institution, the profession and the students, are ready to start making a plan. Before actually writing down the exact contents of such a plan, however, we will need to think about what we are going to do in a general way so that our decisions are taken on the basis of sound reasoning. This is where the pre-plan is formed. The idea of the pre-plan is for teachers to get a general idea of what they are going to do in the next class or classes. Based on our knowledge of the students and the syllabus we can consider four main areas: activities, language skills, language type, and subject and content. When we have ideas of what we want to do as a result of considering these areas we can decide whether such ideas are feasible given the institution and its restrictions. When this has been done we have our pre-plan and we can then move towards the final detailed plan. The concept of the pre-plan and how it operates is summarized.
We will now consider the four major elements of the pre-plan:
(a) Activities
'Activities' is a loose term used to give a general description of what will happen in a class. It is important to realise that here we are not talking in any way about items of language; we are talking about what, generally and physically, the students are going to do. A game is an activity; so is a simulation. The introduction of new language is an activity; so is parallel writing or story reconstruction. Listening is an activity and so is an information gap task; 'The hot seat' (see 7.1.4(c)) is an activity, so is an oral composition.
An activity is what teachers think of when they are asked. 'What are you going to do in class today?'. Rather than give details they will often say, 'Oh, I've got a nice group-writing task and then we're going to do a song.
When teachers think of what to do in their classes it is vital to consider the students and what they have been doing recently. If, for example, they have been doing largely controlled work (e.g. presentation and controlled practice) then the teacher may well take a preliminary decision to plan a freer activity. Only subsequently will he or she decide what skill or skills this might involve. If recent work has been very tiring, challenging, and over-serious the teacher may make an immediate decision to include an activity whose main purpose is to give the students an enjoyable time. If, on the other hand, the last two classes have largely consisted of communicative activities the teacher may decide to include language input or controlled work.
Teachers should make decisions about activities independently of what language or language skills they have to teach. Their first planning thought should centre round what kind of class would be appropriate for the particular group of students on a particular day. It is in this consideration of activities as a starting point for lesson planning that the teacher can ensure a motivating balance of the type we have discussed (see 4.4 and 12.1).
It will also be necessary to consider activities not only on the basis of what the students have been doing recently but also in terms of-tke class period itself. In other words we must consider what activities to include in a period of, say, sixty minutes, and how to balance the different activities within that period of time. We have already said (see 12.2) that a lengthy session of accurate reproduction would probably be de-motivating and unsuccessful. Where presentation is included in a class we will want to make sure that students are not only involved in a lockstep accurate reproduction stage, but are also involved in other motivating activities. In general our aim will be to provide a sequence that is varied and does not follow one activity with a completely similar activity and then follow that with one that is the same.
The decision about what activities are to be included in a plan is a vital first stage in the planning process. The teacher is forced to consider, above all, what would be most beneficial and motivating for the students.
(b)  Language skills
Teachers will have to decide what language skills to include in the class. Sometimes, of course, this decision will already have been taken when the activity has been selected (e.g. listening). In the case of more general activities, though (e.g. communicative activity, roughly-tuned input, etc.) we will then decide whether we wish to concentrate on one skill or a combination of skills. Even where the choice of activity has determined the skill to be studied (e.g. listening) it will still be necessary to decide what sub-skills the class are going to practise. In Chapter 10 we looked at a number of different ways of listening: when planning, the teacher will select which of these types of listening is most appropriate.
The choice of language skills to be practised and studied will be taken in accordance with the syllabus. The latter will often say what skills and sub-skills should be taught during the term or year and it will be the teacher's job to cover these over a period of time. Teachers will also make their choice on the basis of their students' needs. They will also bear in mind what the students have been doing recently, just as they do when thinking of activities.
(c)   Language type
Teachers will have to decide what language is to be focused on during the class. There is, of course, a great range of possibilities here. We may decide that we want the language to be used to be 'general and unpredictable'. This would be the case if we were going to organise a 'reaching a consensus' activity or perhaps a simulation (see 8.1.1 and 8.1.7). We might decide, however, that we want to focus on yes/no questions using 'was' and 'were'. These are the two extremes (completely free language and completely controlled). Teachers may choose to concentrate on a language area: we might want our students to 'talk about the past' using a variety of past tenses or in general to concentrate on 'inviting'. Much will depend on the language in the syllabus.
The choice of language type is a necessary decision: all too often it is the first decision that teachers make and thus classes take on the monotonous controlled aspect that we discussed in 12.2. Here it is only one of four major areas the teacher has to think of when drawing up the pre-plan.
(d)  Subject and content
We have considered what kind of activity would be suitable for our students and we have decided on language skills and type. The last and in some ways most important decision still has to be made. What kind of content will our class have? We may have decided that a simulation activity is appropriate but if the subject of that simulation does not interest the students in any way the choice of activity is wasted. Although we have said it is the teacher's job to interest students in a reading passage, for example, it will surely be more motivating to give the students a reading passage that they would find interesting with or without the teacher.

B.     The plan
Teachers who know who their students are and what they bring to class will be in a much better position to choose subject and content than a teacher who does not. And this knowledge is vital since one of language's main functions is to communicate interest and ideas. These four areas, then, form the basis of the pre-plan. It should be noticed that two of them are not in any way concerned with decisions about language, but are based on what will interest and motivate the students. This reflects everything we have said about language use since language is a tool for doing things, not just an abstract system. Teachers who concentrate on activities and subject and content will benefit the students far more than those who only concentrate on language skills and type.
When we have a general idea of what we are going to do in our class as a result of considering the four areas in the pre-plan we will then consider the institution and the restrictions it imposes. If we have decided that we want to take a song into class we must make sure that this is possible: is a tape of the song available and are the tape recorders in good working order? Is the activity we would like to take into class suitable for the number of students we have to teach? How should we organise the activity for that number of students? Will we be able to do all the things we want to in the time available, and if we can how should we order the class? What should come first?
Experienced teachers consider all these details without, perhaps, consciously realising they are doing so. The new teacher, or the teacher starting a job in a new school or institute will have to bear all these points in mind. We now have a clear idea of what we are going to do in our class: we are ready to make a detailed plan. The plan we are going to consider is extremely detailed and it should be understood that most experienced teachers do not write down what they are going to do in such a complicated way. The detail in our plan and in the specimen plan in 12.5.1 is felt to be necessary, however, for two reasons. Firstly, the inexperienced teacher needs a clear framework of reference for the task of planning, and secondly the form of the plan forces the teacher to consider aspects of planning that are considered desirable.
There is one particular situation in which a detailed plan is beneficial and that is when a teacher is to be observed: by providing a plan such a teacher clearly shows why he or she is doing things in the classroom, and where an activity is not totally successful, the observer can see how it would have gone if it had been performed or organised more efficiently.
The plan has five major components: description of the class, recent work, objectives, contents and additional possibilities. When we have discussed these we will look at a specimen plan.
(a) Description of the class
Teachers may well carry this part of the plan in their heads: the more familiar they become with the group the more they will know about them. The description of the class embraces a description of the students, a statement of time, frequency and duration of the class, and comments about physical conditions and/or restrictions. We will see how this works in the specimen plan on page 270.
(b)  Recent work
Teachers need to have in their heads - or on paper - details of recent work the students have done. This includes thg^activities they have been involved in, the subject and content of their lessons and the language skills and type that they have studied. Only if all this is known (or remembered) can teachers make reasonable planning decisions about future classes (see especially 12.4(a)).
(c)   Objectives
We will write down what our objectives are for the class. We will usually have more than one since there will be a number of stages in the class and each one will be there to achieve some kind of objective. Objectives are the aims that teachers have for the students and are written in terms of what the students will do or achieve. They are written in general terms (e.g. 'The objective is to relax the students'), in terms of skills (e.g. 'to give students practice in extracting specific information from a text') and in terms of language (e.g. 'to give students practice in the use of the past simple tense using regular and irregular verbs, questions and answers'). The written objectives will be more or less specific depending on how specific the teacher's aims are.
The objectives, then, are the aims the teacher has for the students. They may refer to activities, skills, language type or a combination of all of these.
(d)  Contents
By far the most detailed part of the plan is the section in which the contents are written down. Here we spell out exactly what we are going to do in the class. The 'Contents' section has five headings:
Context: Here we write down what context we will be using for the activity. Context means 'what the situation is: what the subject of the learning is'. The context for introducing new language might be a flight timetable; the context for an oral composition might be a story about a man going to the zoo. The context for a simulation might be 'The travel agency'.
Activity and class organisation: Here we indicate what the activity will be (see 11.4(a)) and we say whether the class will be working in lockstep, pairs, groups or teams, etc.
Aids: We indicate whether we will be using the blackboard or a wall picture, the tape recorder or the textbook, etc.
Language: Here we describe the language that will be used. If new language is to be introduced we will list some or all of the models. If the activity is an oral communicative activity we might only write 'unpredictable'. Otherwise we may write 'advice language', for example, and give some indication of what kind of language items we expect.
Possible problems: Many activities can be expected to be problematic in some way. We can often anticipate that the new language for a presentation stage may cause problems because of its form. The introduction of the past simple may cause problems because of the different verb endings: question forms are often difficult because of word order, etc. We should be aware of these possible problems and have considered ways of solving them. Certain activities have complicated organisation. Again we should be aware of this and know how to overcome it.

C.    What Are The Aims Of a Plan?
A good lesson needs to contain a judicious blend of coherence and variety. A good plan needs to reflect this. Coherence means that students can see a logical pattern to the lesson. Even if there are three separate activities, for example, there has to be some connection between them or at the very least a perceptible reason for changing direction. In this content, it would not make sense to have students listen to a tape, ask a few comprehension question and then change the activity completely to something totally unrelated to the listening. And if the following activity only lasted for five minutes before something completely different was then attempted, we might want to call the lesson incoherent.
Nevertheless, the effect of having a class do 45-minute drill would be equally damaging. The lack of variety coupled with the relentlessness of such a procedure would militate against the possibility of real student engagement. However present it might be at the beginning of the session, it would be unlikely to be sustained. There has to be some variety in a lesson period. The ideal compromise is to plan a lesson that has an internal coherence but which nevertheless allows students to do different things.

D.    What Should Be In A Plan?
The kind of plan that teachers make for themselves can be as scrappy or as detailed as the  teacher feels is necessary. If you look at experienced teachers notebook, may you find that they have simply written down the name of an activity, a page number from a book, the opening of a dictation activity or notes about particular student. Such notes look rather empty, but may in fact give the teacher all she needs to remind her of all the necessary elements. Other teacher, however put in much more detail, writing in what they are going to do together with notes like remember to collect homework. On teacher training course, trainers often ask for a written plan which follows a particular format. The formats will vary depending on the trainer and the course, but all plans have the same ingredients. They say who is going to be taught, what they are going to learn or be taught, how they are going to learn or be taught, and whit that. The first thing such a written plan needs to detail is who the students are: how many are there in the class? What ages? What sexes? What are they like? Cooperative? Quiet? Difficult to control? Experience teachers have all this information in their heads when the plan; teachers in training will be expected to write it down.
The next thing the plan has to contain is what the teachers/students want to do: study a piece of grammar, write a narrative, listen to an interview, read a passage, etc. Looking through a plan, an objective observer should be able to discern a logical sequence of things to be studied and/or activated.
The third aspect of a plan will say how the teacher/students is/are going to do it. Will they work in pairs? Will the teacher just put on a tape or will the class start by discussing dangerous sports. An objective reader of the plan should be able to identify a logical sequence of classroom events. If four activities in a row are teacher-led dictation, we might start to think that the sequence is highly repetitive and that, as a result, the students are likely to get very demotivated by this incessant repetition. For each activity, the teacher usually indicate how long she expects it to take and what classroom material or aids she is going to use. The plan will say what is going to be used for the activities:   A tape recorder? Photocopies? An overhead projector?
Lastly, the plan will talk about what might go wrong (and how it can be deal with) and how the lesson fits in with lessons before and after it. In order to be able to say these things, however, we need to go a little bit deeper and ask some searching questions about the activities we intend to use.

E.     What Questions Do We Need To Ask?
For each activity we intend to use in the lesson (whether it is a role-play about building supermarkets or a writing activity while listening to music), we need to be able to answer a number of questions in our own minds. They are:                     
1)      Who exactly are students for this activity? As we said above, the make-up of the class will influence the way teachers plan. Their age, level, cultural background and individual characteristic have to be taken into account when deciding to use an activity. Teachers often have a section called description of the class in their plans to remind themselves and or show an observer what they know about their students.
2)      Why do you want to do it? There has to be good reason for taking an activity into a classroom apart from the fact that the teacher happens to like it or because it looks interesting.
3)      What will it achieve? It is vitally important to have thought about what an activity will achieve. How will students have change as a result of it? It might give the students a greater understanding of an area of vocabulary. It might give them greater fluency in one particular topic area, or it might achieve a change of atmosphere in the class, too. If it is difficult to say what an activity might achieve, then it may well be that the activity is north worth using. I plan, this is often called Aims and most trainers expect the aims to be specific. Writing is too general an aim for observers to get much of what the teacher wants to do, whereas to train students to appropriate paragraph construction does describe exactly what the teachers intends.
4)      How long will it take? Some activities which, at first glance, look very imaginative end up lasting for only a very short time. Others demand considerable setting-up time, discussion time, student-planning time, etc. the student’s confidence in the teacher can be undermined if they never finish what they set out to do; students are frequently irritated when teachers run often the bell has gone because they have overestimated the amount of time something might take and are thus left with time on their hands and no clear idea what to do. There is no absolute way of preventing such problems from occurring, of course, but we should at least try to estimated how long each activity will take (based on our experience and knowledge of the class) so that we can measure our progress at the lesson continues against our proposed ‘timetable’. We can also plan for our material taking too little time by having some spare activities with us. If we have built-in lesson stages in our pal, we can decide, as the lesson progress, where we might want to veer away from the plan if we see that we have taken too much time over one particular element of it.

5)      What might go wrong? If teachers try to identify problems that might arise in the lesson, they are in a much better position to deal with them occur. The attempt to identify problems will also give teacher insight into the language and or the activity which is to be us. Teacher often call this Anticipated Problems in their plan.

6)      What will be needed? Teachers have to decide whether they are going to use the board or the tape recorder, an overhead projector or some role cards or a computer. It is important to consider the limitation of the classroom and equipment. In their plans, teacher usually indicate the teaching aids they are going to use or attach copies of print material the students are going work with.

7)      How does it work? If teachers wanted to use the poetry activity on page how would they actually do it? Who does what first? How and what should students be put in pairs or groups? When does the teacher give instruction? What are those instruction? Experienced teachers may has procedures firmly fixed in their minds but even they, when they give something new, need to think carefully about the mechanics of the activity. Teachers often call this procedure in their plans and indicate what kind activity it is, sometimes in note form.

8)      How will it fit in whit what comes before and after it? An activity o own may be useful, engaging and full of good language. But with connection, if any, does it have to the activities which come before and after it? Is there a language tie-in? perhaps two or three activities are linked topic, one leading into the other. Perhaps an activity has not connection with the one before it. It is there to break up any monotony in a lesson to act as a ‘gear change’. The point of answering this question for ourselves is to ensure that we have some reasonable vision of the overall shape our lesson and that it is not composed of unrelated scraps.

F.     What Form Should A Plan Take?
There is no correct format for a lesson plan. The most important thing about it is that it should be useful for the teacher and for anyone who is observing him/her. Some teachers, for example, might write their plan on cards. Others will prefer handwritten sheets from a notepad, others will type it out immaculately on a word processor.
Some teachers highlight parts on their plan with colored pens. Some divide their plans into columns with timing on the left, procedures in the middle and comments in a right hand column. Still others have an introduction page with facts about the class and the aims of the lesson before going into detail.
Some teachers write down exactly what they are going to say and note down each sentence that the students are going to say. Other teachers use note form hints to themselves or just write ‘pair work’ or ‘solo work’ or ‘whole class’, for example; when teachers are in training, it will be sensible to take the trainer’s preferences into account. Practicing teachers should experiment with plan formats until they find one that is most useful for them.

G.    How Should Teachers Plan A Sequence Of Lessons?
When teachers plan a lesson , they build in changes of activity and a variety of exercise. It may well be that the lesson has an overall theme, but within that theme the students do different things. The same principles apply to a sequence of lessons stretching, for example, over two weeks or a month. Once again students will want to see a coherent pattern of progress and topic-linking so that there is a connection between lessons and so that they can perceive some overall aims and objectives.
How ever two dangers may prejudice the success of sequence of lessons. The first is predictability and the second is sameness. Despite the need for coherence, teachers must remember that if students know exactly what to expect they are likely to be less motivated than if their curiosity is aroused. In the same way, they may feel less enthusiastic about today’s lessons if it start with exactly the same kind of activity as yesterday’s lessons.

An ideal two-week sequence has threads running trough it which are based on a topic or topics. During the two weeks, all four skills will be covered appropriately. During the two weeks the language being taught will happen in a logical sequence. Most importantly of all, there will be a range of activities which bring variety and interest to the learning process. Perhaps the most important thing to remember, however, is that a long teaching sequence is made up of shorter sequence which are them selves made up if smaller sequences. And at the level of a teaching sequence we have to ensure the presence of our three elements, engage, study and active.

A.    Criticism
In this time, we are try to makes criticism for these theory. Well, these theory too difficult to applying in our live. Actually we know that these theory is not too relevant with our lives. In reality, in planning lesson we just does like planning, practice. But these theory really makes teacher confused. But the other time it is can make teachers improving their skill for teaching their students. We think that, these theory have not more weaknesses so our criticism about these theory is enough.

B.     Position
After finished this task, we have a choise that we are agree with these theory. Why? Because it is can give us many solution to have a good planning lessons. First, these theory give us the first step is pre-plan, it means that we must be carefully to make a planning, so we can thinking so hard for get the great planning in application. Beside that, it can makes us more know about the situation in class, about the students, material and the others.
Finally, we are really agree with these theory.

In this chapter we have:
a)      Discussed the purpose of planning: it helps to focus our mind, it helps to have something to refer to in the middle of the class, it show students that we are professional and that we care.
b)      Said that, whatever the format of a plan, it should tell us who is going to learn or be taught, what they are going to learn or be taught, how they are going to do it and what with.
c)      Asked a number of important questions which teachers need to consider before they star to plan an activity: why do you want to do it? What will it achieve? How long will it take? What might go wrong? What will you need to do it? How will it fit in whit what comes before and after it?
d)     Introduced the terms description of the class, aims, timing, anticipated problems, teaching aids, procedures as headings which some teachers use to organize their plans.
e)      Suggested that the actual format of a lessons plan is very much a matter of personal preference, but that trainers may want to guide trainees into certain formats.
Lesson planning decision that face language teachers (both preservice and in-service). Because we all have different styles of teaching, and therefore planning, the suggestion in this chapter are not meant to be prescriptive. Teachers must allow themselves flexibility to plan in their own way. always keeping in mind the yearly, term, and unit plan. As Bailey (1996) points out, a lesson plan is like a road map “which describes where the teacher hopes to go in a lesson, presumably taking the students along”. It is the letter part of this quote that is important for teachers to remember, because they may need to make “in-flight” changes in response to the actuality of the classroom. As Bailey (1996) correctly points out, “in realizing lesson plans, part of a skilled teacher’s logic in use involve managing such departures (from the original lesson plan) to maximize teaching and learning opportunities”. Clearly thought-out lesson plans will more likely maintain the attention of students and increase the likelihood that they will be interested. A clear plan will also maximize time and minimize confusion of what is expected of the students, thus making classroom management easier. These were the considerations that affected the pre-plan. The plan then allowed for a detailed response based not only on recent work, but also on what we wished to achieve. The lack of previous oral interaction is why the opening buzz group and the 'creating expectations' activity were used since they allow the students to use spontaneous speech. The reading text was appropriate here since we recognized the need for reading. Vocabulary work follows naturally from a reading so that slotted in nicely. Finally we used the preceding stages to build up to a piece of guided writing. Note the 'additional possibilities' part of the plan. We realize that things may well go slower than planned, so any of these activities would be good alternatives to the writing preparation (for example) since they can be completed in less time. Alternatively the teacher might want to use (one of) them to liven up the class if either the reading process and/or the vocabulary study have been too 'heavy'. In this chapter we have considered an approach to the planning of language classes.
We have shown how an over-reliance on the textbook and the syllabus may well cause teachers to give classes which are not as motivating as they could be. We have stressed the need to choose appropriate activities for the class, highlighting the need for variety, flexibility and balance. We have discussed what teachers need to know before making a plan. This includes a knowledge of how to teach - including ideas for different activities and a knowledge of useful techniques. Teachers should also be familiar with the (rules of the) institution they are working in. Most important, however, is a knowledge of the students; who they are and what needs they have. We have looked at a pre-plan in which teachers make general decisions about what they are going to teach: these decisions are made on the basis of activities, language skills, language type and subject and content. We emphasised the fact that language type (the traditional syllabus) was only one of the necessary components of the pre-plan and that activities and subject and content were equally important since here teachers could base decisions on how the students were feeling and what they had been doing recently. Finally we have looked at how an actual plan can be put together, stressing that experienced teachers seldom write plans in such detail but that to do so forces us to consider important aspects of planning (and will be useful if we are to be observed).


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