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Kamis, 09 Mei 2013

grammar


A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition.
Gerund as subject:
  • Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.)
  • The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.)
Gerund as direct object:
  • They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.)
  • They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed)
Gerund as subject complement:
  • My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.)
  • My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.)
Gerund as object of preposition:
  • The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.)
  • The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.)
A gerund phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the gerund, such as:
The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do.
Finding (gerund)
a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb)
The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the verb appreciate.
I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity.
my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the gerund)
offering (gerund)
you (indirect object of action expressed in gerund)
this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
The gerund phrase functions as the subject complement.
Tom's favorite tactic has been jabbering away to his constituents.
jabbering away to (gerund)
his constituents (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition for.
You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work.
faking (gerund)
an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb)
The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy.
Being (gerund)
the boss (subject complement for Jeff, via state of being expressed in gerund)
-ing phrase opener (present participle phrase)
Looking rather pale, Mr. Caine obviously had a grave illness.
Fighting for his life, the swimmer struggled to shore as waves crashed into him.
Spewing out black smoke, the old Model T Ford chugged up the hill.
Pattern:      -ing phrase, complete sentence.
                  -ing phrase, subject + predicate.
Hint: -ing phrase should tell reader what the subject is doing, shows subject's action.
Verbs + Prepositional Phrases
With gerunds as objects of the phrases
Verbs complemented by prepositional phrases
VERB + PREP + NOUN
VERB + PREP + GERUND CLAUSE
Specific verbs are complemented (completed) by specific prepositions.   The object of the prepositional phrase could be a noun or a noun phrase, as shown below.  
Or the object of the prepositional phrase could be a gerund clause, as shown below. (A gerund is called a "gerund-participle" in current linguistic descriptions.) 
Jack talked about his job. (noun phrase)   He talked about work. (noun)
Jack talked about leaving his job.
Jack objects to his work load.
Jack objects to working overtime.
Jack doesn't care for accountant work.
Jack doesn't care for doing the accounting work.
Jack puts off his vacation.
Jack puts off taking a vacation.
complement – a word, phrase or clause which is necessary in a sentence to complete its meaning
Verb & Preposition List
ABOUT
IN
ON
agree about  We agreed about ending the matter.
believe in  She believes in being well-educated.
agree on  We agreed on renting the condominium.
argue about  We argued about spending money.
interest in   He is interested in being a scientist.
concentrate on  I concentrate on getting experience.
care about  We care about recycling things.
succeed in  He succeeded in winning the race.
specialize in  He will specialize in making wine.
congratulate on  We congratulated them on getting married.
continue on  He continued on sleeping all day.
complain about  He complains about getting old.
forget about  She forgets about calling us.
give in/into I won't give into his complaining.
depend on  We depend on getting help.
talk about  He talks about getting married.

go on   Will you go on working?
think about   We are thinking about joining them
LIKE
insist on  He insists on coming too.
worry about  She worried about getting lost.
feel like  Do you feel like going out?
keep on   We keep on working.
dream about  He dreams about playing ball.

plan on   She plans on taking a course.


rely on   We rely on their assisting us.
AGAINST
OF
TO
decide against  We decided against buying a car.
accuse of   He was accused of lying.
adjust to  I adjusted to living in the U.S.
warn against  They warn against giving out info.
approve of  They approved of doing that.
agree to   They agreed to leaving earlier.

dream of  He dreams of playing ball.  Solution - lightbulbPop-Q "Dream"
get used to/ be used to  We are used to hearing traffic. Solution - lightbulbPop-Q "Use to"
AFTER
in charge of  He is in charge of collecting tickets.
look forward to  I look forward to seeing you.   Solution - lightbulbPop-Q "Look forward"
look after  I will look after buying the tickets.
take care of   I took care of making reservations.
object to  I object to doing all the work.

think of   We thought of a new way to fix that. 

FOR
OFF
WITH
apologize for  I apologized for being late.
put off  He put off going to business school. 
agree with  He agrees with exercising daily.
blame for  I was blamed for losing the game.

cope with  She copes with working long hours.
care for  I don't care for wearing shorts.
 


FROM
OVER

refrain from   I refrained from saying anything.
think over   He is thinking over moving away.

stop from  He was stopping from going in.
 
talk over  We talked over buying a new home.

Commonly Confused Verb Expressions
VERB PHRASE
VERB PHRASE
CARE ABOUT
I care about helping people to help themselves. (be concerned)
CARE FOR
Do you care for watching game shows? (like, enjoy)
FEEL GUILTY ABOUT
I feel guilty about not calling home. (I am regretful.)
BE GUILTY OF
He was guilty of stealing other people's credit card numbers. (He was convicted of it.)
THINK ABOUT
THINK OVER
You should think about your future. (consider)
Take some time to think over the problem. (consider)
He thought it over and then decide to buy the car. (consider)
THINK OF
I didn't think of the possible problems at that time.  (predict)
I couldn't think of his name. (come easily to the mind)
THINK ABOUT
Try not to think about your problems right now. (focus on)
She is the only thing that he can think about.  (focus on)
THINK OF
THINK ABOUT
What did you think of that movie. (have an opinion)
We think very highly of that director.  (regard)  Solution - lightbulbPop-Q "
Think of"
What did you think about that movie.