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Kamis, 09 Mei 2013

contoh proposal bahasa inggris


The Correlation Between Vocabulary and Speaking Abilities at Study of the Second Semester at Muhammadiyah University of Mataram
in Academic Year 2013/2014

 




                               







A PROPOSAL


DINI NURHAIRANI
10912A0115


MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF MATARAM

TEACHING TRAINING AND EDUCATION  FACULTY
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
2 0 1 3

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1  Background of the Study
Basically, language as a means of communication ideas, thought, desire and feeling. Nowdays, English has been used in international meeting, seminar and workshop. People learn English for many purpose such as business and class presentation. Most of people said that language consist of four elements that are listening, speaking, reading and writing. These elements called as language skills. Inside each of skill there are some of the language form that is grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. When a person tries to understand something he/she must well master grammar and pronunciation as a language form.
Teaching and learning is one kind of activities which can improve someone abilities an their skill. But in teach and learning process, it has some treatment, in this case to improve an activity. Like teach and learn in vocabulary and speaking. Speaking is an ability that requires the process of communicative competence, pronunciation, intonation, grammar and vocabulary improving.
Speaking means to be able to use language (OXFORD, 1986:6), according to Nurkhasanah in her thesis (Finnociaro and Brumfit, 1983) speaking is one of the important language skills that has to be mastered by language learners.  Both opinion is almost similar, but definition about speaking is little bit different than the thesis by Nurmi,M.Taher (2009) she stated: Speaking is the form of oral language that is inevitably used to communicate ideas and feeling, but in conclusion, speaking  is something express about your opinion or argument about something and  matter  in explaining what happen with your life.
If we talk about speaking, usually connect with English study. English widely used in mass media and oral communication it means for exchanging information, science, research technology and tourism. Effective speaking benefit from the negotiatory language we use to seek clarification and how to compose the structure of what we want to   say, speakers also needs to compose their discourse if they want get a deeply understanding, one hand like speech such as giving presentation, they need to use certain phrases to highlight the content structure of their discourse (hormer Jeremy,2001.270).
As a result, of more varied method, the student ability of speaking along
with their  active engagement with vocabulary, interest, condensed thinking ability  were all improved (Shuiqin Wang, 2004:1).
There are many problems that face some students when they want to explore their idea orally and the difficulty to express their capability in English skill.  The objective of language is the production of the speakers’ competence to communicate in the target language, (Panist and Bruder 1975). But often  students feel difficult learn speak English, because  difficulty memorize vocabulary and use the in grammar, the speaking ability  need vocabulary, if we will be better, if we try to memorize it more perfect.
Speaking can divided in two categories, namely accuracy and fluency. Accuracy focus on explain about  correct of use of grammar vocabulary, and other skill, in this statement have explain about connection or relation between vocabulary and speaking ability. Fluency is the ability to speak smoothly and clearly.
According Thornburry (2005) Speaking is so much a part of daily life that we take it for granted. The average person of produce thousands of words a day, although some may produce even more than that. So vocabulary is very important for speaking ability students’.
Vocabulary is an essential component of language learning.  Work in the last two decades has described its importance in the academic world. (Coady and Huckin 1997, Huckin et al. 1993; Nation, 1990,2001; Schmitt, 2000; Schmitt and Mc Carthy 1997; Singleton, 1999). One of the major interests addressed by researchers is the number of words a learner needs to  communicate successfully.  The general consensus is that around 2000 word families provide the lexical resources for learners to speak conversationally in a L2.  (Nation and Meara,2000; Schmitt,2000).  This figure is based on the findings of the Schonell study (Schonell et al.,1965) which showed that around 2000 family words covered 99% of words used in the speech produced by Australian workers. Adolph and Schmitt (2003), described some of the shortcomings of this study  when viewed from the perspective of today’s research methodology. They argued that factors such as the limited population sample (only a segment of the population), the lack of 50% of the data that reflects spontaneous speech, and the half a million words compared to the 5 million words counted in the CANCODE corpus (for a comprehensive description of the CANCODE see McCarthy, 1998), make the Schnoll study (Schnoll, et al.,1965) look as a small scale study.
Vocabulary is an essential component of language learning.  Work in the last two decades has described its importance in the academic world. (Coady and Huckin 1997, Huckin et al. 1993; Nation, 1990,2001; Schmitt, 2000; Schmitt and Mc Carthy 1997; Singleton, 1999). One of the major interests addressed by researchers is the number of words a learner needs to  communicate successfully.  The general consensus is that around 2000 word families provide the lexical resources for learners to speak conversationally in a L2.  (Nation and Meara,2000; Schmitt,2000).  This figure is based on the findings of the Schonell study (Schonell et al.,1965) which showed that around 2000 family words covered 99% of words used in the speech produced by Australian workers. Adolph and Schmitt (2003), described some of the shortcomings of this study  when viewed from the perspective of today’s research methodology.
Based on the reasons above, the writer interests to conduct a research how to improve students’ speaking skill. The title is “The correlation between vocabulary and speaking abilities at the Second Semester in Muhammadiyah University of Mataram”.

1.2  Formulation of The Problem
Based on the background of the study, the formulation of the problem can be stated as follows: “is there significant improvement of  students’ speaking abilities based on vocabulary abilities?”.
1.3  Objective of the Study
The objective of this study is to find out whether there is a significant correlation of students’ vocbulary and speaking abilities.
1.4        Significance of the Study
The writer hopes that this study can give some contributions to the following parties:
1.4.1        Students
Vocab and speaking have important role in communication, actually in this modern era. It will be good for students to master speaking. So that is why this research hopefully can help students in mastering speaking.
1.4.2        Teachers
Contribute ideas for the development of science education, especially related to matters that affect the success of a child's learning.
The results can be used as a conceptual contribution in order to improve the concept and implementation of educational practices as a strategic effort in the development of quality human resources, especially in the areas of speaking.
1.4.3        Other Reseacrhers
It becomes a reference for  the next researcher  who wants to conduct a research which same with this study.
1.5  Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. For example, a study designed to look at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis that states, "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleep deprived. While the hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong. Hypothesis can be interpreted as a temporary answer to the problem of the study, till proven by the data collected (Suharsimi, 2010).
Base on the definition above, the writer try to make the hypothesis of this study are:
1.5.1        Ho = there is no correlation between vocab and speaking abilities.
1.5.2        Ha = there is correlation between vocab and speaking abilities.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Scope of study is a general outline of what the study (e.g. class or seminar) will cover. "Scope" defines the parameters of this can be an object, or a theory process, activity. Describing either future, current or past knowledge or statements of descriptive activity, experience etc. Scope always unless of the unlimited nature (specific) will define specific boundaries. Such as a manual is used to define employee duties or company procedures, studies are used to obtain and knowledge to arrive at a logical finishing point. The definitions of scope are the "borders" where the objective, knowledge, instruction or outcome of the activity is found.          This study will focus on the vocab and speaking abilities at second semester in Muhammadiyah University of Mataram.
1.7  Definition of Key Term
In this definition, the writer just defines only the important terms. They are:
1.7.1        Correlation
Correlation is a measure of the statistical relationship between two comparable time series. For investors, these series may be two commodities, two stocks, a stock and an index or even a stock and a commodity. The relationship, which can be causal, complementary, parallel or reciprocal, is stated as the correlation coefficient and always reflects the simultaneous change in value of the pairs of numerical values over time. 
View the correlation coefficient, which lies between the range of -1.00 to +1.00, as a positive or negative probability that the members of a market pair relate to each other.  A negative reading suggests that one member of the pair consistently moves up while the other moves down.  Conversely a positive reading suggests there is a tendency for the pair of markets move together in the same direction. A correlation coefficient very close to 0.00 means the two markets have no correlation, indicating that their statistical relationship is completely random.
Perfect correlation is found only in markets that are truly identical, such as an index that is reported in two different ways. Such situations are unlikely to be present in our reports. However, many markets that are linked by industry, market segment, substitutability and other factors exhibit a high degree of correlation. For example, CBT Soybeans and CBT Corn are highly correlated because they share growing seasons at similar latitudes, climate, a common currency, fuel costs and transportation needs. Their correlation coefficient of +0.7595, at the time this report was written, reflects their shared circumstances which is somewhat less than perfect, but remain very noteable.


1.7.2        Vocabulary
Vocabulary is an essential component of language learning.  Work in the last two decades has described its importance in the academic world. (Coady and Huckin 1997, Huckin et al. 1993; Nation, 1990,2001; Schmitt, 2000; Schmitt and Mc Carthy 1997; Singleton, 1999). One of the major interests addressed by researchers is the number of words a learner needs to  communicate successfully.  The general consensus is that around 2000 word families provide the lexical resources for learners to speak conversationally in a L2.  (Nation and Meara,2000; Schmitt,2000).  This figure is based on the findings of the Schonell study (Schonell et al.,1965) which showed that around 2000 family words covered 99% of words used in the speech produced by Australian workers. Adolph and Schmitt (2003), described some of the shortcomings of this study  when viewed from the perspective of today’s research methodology. They argued that factors such as the limited population sample (only a segment of the population), the lack of 50% of the data that reflects spontaneous speech, and the half a million words compared to the 5 million words counted in the CANCODE corpus (for a comprehensive description of the CANCODE see McCarthy, 1998), make the Schnoll study (Schnoll, et al.,1965) look as a small scale study.


1.7.3        Speaking
Speaking is the process building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non- verbal symbol, in variety of contexts (Chaney,1998,p.13). According Palmer (1995 : 136) Speaking is ability to associated to produce certain sound in combination that are recognizable .the both definition almost similar explain about speaking, namely ability to combination between   object and than words  becomes a symbol or label for the object .Then Dubin  (1978 ; 79) states that speaking at would be seen to be most  attainable skill for the students in country where English  is not widely spoken. Beside that speaking is   means of oral and direct communication needs several requirement ( Tarigan, 1990:16 – 17 ). From the definition above we can conclusion , speaking is  something  a skill in English that is spoken orally by  someone in direct communication.


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1  Speaking
Speaking is a process or made of word or statement in an ordinary voice, uttering word, know and made something statement to use communication into socialization the other and definition speaking according Heaton (1998:4) defines speaking ability to communicate ideas appropriately. In other word, speaking ability to speak appropriately and effectively in a real communicative situation in order to communicate ideas to others. Thus the they similar mention about communication, so speaking is a matter for speaks between someone or other one.
Speaking performs the ability of someone in the linguistic knowledge in actual communication, communication itself have to express one idea, feeling, thought and need orally. In other, speaking is said to be fundamentally an instrument act. Speakers talk in order to have effect on their listener. in the process of speech production, speaking begin with the intention of effecting then in particular way, elect and utter a sentence they believe will bring about their effect.
Speaking is one way of communication; it means that in communication there is an interchange of though, feeling, emotional expression, speech or writing form of language. But it is commonly and most effectively done by speaking.
Based on expert opinion above, we know that practicing is the most important. Any terminology said “Practice makes perfect “so it is very important to makes speaking ability and then the words and vocabularies will no meaning until they try to use it in actual conversation.
The student more easy study speaking in out class because the environment has effect is very bigger for development the language.
Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It, like the other skills, is more complicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words. Speaking is one of the language skills which is important for second language learners to be developed. Furthermore, “the mastery of speaking skill in English is a priority for many second-language or foreign language learners” (Richards, 1990).
Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997). Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. However, speech is not always unpredictable. Language functions (or patterns) that tend to recur in certain discourse situations (e.g., declining an invitation or requesting time off from work), can be identified and charted (Burns &Joyce, 1997). For example, when a salesperson asks "May I help you?" the expected discourse sequence includes a statement of need, response to the need, offer of appreciation, acknowledgement of the appreciation, and a leave-taking exchange. Speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary (linguistic competence), but also that they understand when, why, and in what ways to produce language (sociolinguistic competence). Finally, speech has its own skills, structures, and conventions different from written language (Burns & Joyce, 1997; Carter & McCarthy, 1995; Cohen, 1996). A good speaker synthesizes this array of skills and knowledge to succeed in a given speech act.
Speaking is the singgle most important aspect of learning a secong or foregin language and success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language (David Nunan, 1991). Speaking is key to communication. By considering what good speakers do, what speaking tasks can be used in class, and what specific needs learners report, teachers can help learners improve their speaking and overall oral competency.
The ability to speak fluently presupposes not only a knowledge of language features, but also ability to process information and language ‘on the spot’ ( Harmer, 2001).
2.2  Vocabulary
Nation (2001) suggests that words are not isolated units of language but they are interlocked to form part of more complex systems and levels.  He stresses that learning individual items and learning systems of knowledge differ greatly.  The first one requires the recognition of a word by memorizing it.  The second one requires more complex processes such as determining spelling rules and systemic phonemics of the language. Richards(1976) provided a list of aspects that should be considered when knowing a word. He emphasized on the character of continuity of  vocabulary  expansion in adult life , contrary to  the relative stability suggested for grammar. Nation(1990) incorporated several other components in Richards’ initial lists but the most outstanding one was the distinction between productive and receptive knowledge.  Nation’s table  clearly explains the components of word knowledge but it seems unpractical at the moment of assessing vocabulary knowledge (Meara,1996; Read,2000; Schmitt and Meara,1997;Schmmit , 1998). Nation notes that knowing the spoken form of a word “includes being able to recognize it when it is heard and at the other end of the receptive-productive scale being able to produce the form in order to express meaning”(p.41). Henrisen (1999) proposes three dimensions in  vocabulary knowledge that should be easily recognized by language teachers and researchers. These are: partial/precise knowledge, depth of knowledge and receptive/ production dimension. Although it would be easier to asses vocabulary knowledge based on the dimensions described above, Read suggest that vocabulary knowledge is an inherently complex concept.  For  the purpose of this paper I will only  focus on  the receptive/productive dimension , which  does not mean that I am disregarding  the importance of the two others.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Design of the Study
This research aimed at finding out strong relationship between the variables under study without any intervention of the variation variables are concerned. obtained data is the data as it is natural. Control Persia made ​​limited statistical controls in the analysis, so possible to see the relationship between two variables such relations without variation tainted by other variables. the correlation between vocabulary and speaking abilitites. In this study, the writer used the correlation research (Azwar, 1998).
3.2  Population and Sample
3.2.1    Population
The population is a region consisting of generalization: the object / subject that has certain qualities and characteristics are determined by the researchers to learn and then drawn conclusions (Sugiyono, 2003). The population of this study is all the students at the second semester in Muhammadiyah University of Mataram who are enrolled in academic year 2012/2013. The total of population of this study is 89 students in 3 parallel classes (II A, B, and II C) which are consisted of 23 to 38 students on each class.
3.2.2    Sample
Sample is a part that will be observed ( Jalludin Rahmat, 1984 : 92 ). That means sample is the characteristic of the object. Based on Arikunto, 1996:117 stated, “Sample is a part of population that would be examined.”
The subject of this investigation was at Second Semester students in Muhammadiyah University of Mataram. In this semester there were three class, namely: class A, B and C. But just one class would be sample in this research namely class C.
The writer used Purposive Sampling technique in this research because some consideration..like time limited, energy, and lack of found. Until it could not take the high sample.
3.3 Technique of Data Collection
In collecting the data of this study, the writer will use three steps, they are:
3.3.1        Obesrvation
Collecting the obesrvation of students. This way to know the main situation of the students in the class.
3.3.2    Documentation or Official Archives
Documentation or official archives is usually use to get the secunder data.


3.3.2        Test
Procedure test is a picture that is designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of actions or steps. It explains how people perform different processes in a sequence of steps.

3.4      Technique of Data Analysis
Classified the students score
The writer classified the students score as the following categories:
No
Achievement Category
Range of Score
1
Excellent
9.6 – 1.0
2
Very Good
8.6 – 9.5
3
Good
7.6 – 8.5
4
Fairly Good
6.6 – 7.5
5
Fair
5.6 – 6.5
6
Poor
3.6 – 5.5
7
Very Poor
0 – 3.5

After classification the students score, the writer will make percentage (%). The formula of the percentage scores as follow:
% =

Where:     x = The student score
                 n = Number of students
Y
 
X
 
In analyzing the data of this study, the writer uses t-test with the formula as follow:
                                          X= vocabulary abilities
                                          Y= speaking abilities